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Winter is the traditional time to prune, but it might not be the best time to prune a particular tree or shrub. If plants are already too big, winter pruning only makes them grow bigger faster. Removing suckers and water sprouts in the winter usually produces two or three times as many the following summer. Also, winter pruning will remove the flowers from spring blooming plants. Trees and shrubs can be pruned at different times of the year to get certain results, because plants respond differently to pruning at different times of year.
The best time to prune a tree or shrub depends on how fast it is growing and when it flowers. How much to prune depends on how fast the tree is growing and how crowded the branches are. This can only be learned by experience. Start by noticing which branches have the most flowers and which branches produce the best fruit. Then prune to encourage the types of branches that are most productive.
Pruning deciduous trees and shrubs in the winter when they are dormant (no leaves), will make them grow more vigorously in the spring. Dormant pruning reduces the number of buds to share the food stored in the roots, so each bud will grow more vigorously. Pruning deciduous trees and shrubs in the summer will make them grow slower the following spring. Summer pruning reduces the number of leaves to produce food stored in the roots. There is less food for each bud so the buds grow less vigorously the following spring.
Winter pruning is recommended for young deciduous trees and shrubs, and fruit trees to encourage them to grow more vigorously. Summer pruning is recommended for full sized or overgrown deciduous trees and shrubs to slow down their growth. Plants that haven't been pruned in recent years should be partly pruned in the summer and the rest in the winter to avoid over pruning. Pruning off too much in the summer will stunt the growth, and pruning off too much in the winter will cause lots of suckers and watersprouts.
Late spring pruning doesn't speed up or slow down growth so it is a good time to prune neglected plants. It is also good time to prune fruit trees since by then, it is obvious which branches produce fruit and which ones do not. This is also a good time to remove suckers and watersprouts, the branches that grow straight up. They can be plucked off when they are still soft. They are less likely to resprout if they are plucked off, because cutting them leaves a stub with buds.
Pruning evergreen trees and shrubs in the winter or summer doesn't affect their rate of growth very much because they store food in the leaves or needles, so stored food and buds are reduced about equally. Twigs and branches can be removed any time of year with the same results. However, shearing the tips is best done just before or after their spring flush of new growth, so the new growth can hide the cuts. Shearing evergreens in late summer or fall isn't a good idea because it produces brown cut ends that will show until the new growth next spring hides them.
Pines have special requirements for pruning because the buds are all formed at the tips of the new growth. Cutting off the tip of a branch will prevent the branch from putting out new growth. However, new buds will form if the tip is cut off during the soft candle stage, when the tips of the needles are just emerging from the candles. Pines can only be sheared at this stage which usually occurs in May or June. Branches can be pruned back to a side branch any time of year, but pitch borers are often attracted by pruning in the summer, especially if stubs are left. Winter pruning of pine branches is the least likely to attract pitch borers.
Besides growth, the time of flowering affects the season for pruning. Spring flowers come from buds that formed the preceding summer. Late summer and dormant pruning will remove flower buds. Pruning spring-blooming plants soon after they finish blooming won't reduce the number of flowers the next year. Summer flowers come from buds formed on new growth. Dormant pruning will encourage larger flowers. Pruning off faded flowers will usually encourage more flowers.
(These dates are the average for the USA, but will need to be adjusted for warmer or colder climates.)
January to March: young or weak growing trees and shrubs, summer blooming shrubs such as roses, rose of sharon, crapemyrtle, and spiraeas.
April to May: spring flowering trees and shrubs such as azaleas, camellias, daphne, forsythia, lilacs, rhododendrons, cherries, plums, deciduous magnolias, and crab apples, after they are finished blooming. Also, needle-leaf and broad-leaf evergreens can be pruned or sheared.
June to early August: overgrown or neglected deciduous flowering or fruit trees and shrubs, suckers and watersprouts, and faded flowers on summer blooming plants such as roses and spiraea. Also, needle-leaf and broad-leaf evergreens can be pruned or sheared.
Late August to October: only necessary pruning to prevent limb breakage during winter weather. Dead wood can be removed anytime of year, but it is easier to find before trees lose their leaves.
November to December: perennials and shrubs that die back over winter such as hydrangeas, and Confederate Rose hibiscus.
Dead or diseased wood should be pruned out immediately in any season. Clean and sterilize pruning tools with bleach or disinfectant between every cut to prevent spreading the disease.
Steps 5 and 6 may not be needed if the branches are not crowded.
To receive a free estimate on pruning in the West Portland and Washington County areas,
EMAIL me at firstname.lastname@example.org
Please include your location.
Annuals, Biennials, Perennials and Bulbs
Fruit Tree Tips